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TIME FOR A CLEARER PICTURE OF TYPE 2 INFLAMMATION IN ASTHMA

The prevalence of asthma has been increasing, affecting more than 300 million
patients worldwide,1 including 5.4 million in the UK alone – one in 11 people.2

Each day, 185 people in the UK are admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of their
asthma with, on average, 3 people a day dying as a result.2 Overall, 1,320 asthma
deaths were reported in England and Wales in 2017, up 25% in the past decade3
and in Scotland asthma related deaths were reported as 133 in 2016.4

Asthma has no single cause. Genetic predisposition is clear from the literature,
however gene-by-environment interaction is likely to be responsible for the
global variation in asthma prevalence.

Asthma presents in a heterogeneous way but can be categorised into two
forms: Type 2 asthma (driven by type 2 inflammation) and non-Type 2 asthma.
Within these two divisions are further subdivisions, known as “phenotypes”.

Gain insight into Type 2 Asthma

WHAT IS THE PREVALENCE AND HEALTHCARE BURDEN OF ASTHMA?

Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic respiratory disease affecting millions of adults and children worldwide11

Facts & figures

ASTHMA CONTROL GOES BEYOND EXACERBATION REDUCTION

Patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma may also
experience impaired lung function, risk of long-term
side effects, and poor QoL13–17
 

Find out more

WHAT ROLE
DOES ASTHMA
PLAY IN
COMORBIDITIES?

Various comorbidities are often associated with asthma. These can influence the clinical expression of asthma, alter asthma responses to therapy and ultimately reduce a patient’s QoL18

Explore the data

LEARN MORE ABOUT THE SCIENCE BEHIND TYPE 2 INFLAMMATION IN ASTHMA

Explore the key drivers of Type 2 inflammation

See the science

CD4+, cluster of differentiation 4-positive T cell; IgE, immunoglobulin E; IL, interleukin; ILCs, innate lymphoid cells; ILC2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells; QoL, quality of life; Th, T helper cells.

References:
  1. Global Asthma Network. The Global Asthma Report. 2018. Available at: http://globalasthmareport.org/Global%20Asthma%20Report%202018.pdf. Date accessed: October 2019.
  2. Asthma UK. Facts and statistics. Available at: https://www.asthma.org.uk/about/media/facts-and-statistics/. Date accessed: October 2019.
  3. Asthma UK. Asthma deaths in England and Wales are the highest this century. 2017. Available at: https://www.asthma.org.uk/about/media/news/statement-asthma-deaths-in-england-and-wales-are-the-highest-this-century/. Date accessed: October 2019.
  4. Asthma UK. Press release: Asthma deaths in Scotland highest this century. Available at: https://www.asthma.org.uk/about/media/news/athma-deaths-in-scotland-highest-this-century. Date accessed: October 2019.
  5. Robinson D, et al. Revisiting type 2-high and type-2 low airway inflammation in asthma: current knowledge and therapeutic implications. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47(2):161–175.
  6. Hammad H and Lambrecht B. Dendritic cells and epithelial cells: linking innate and adaptive immunity in asthma. Nat Rev lmmunol. 2008;8(3):193–204.
  7. Gould H and Sutton B. IgE in allergy and asthma today. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(3):205–17.
  8. Edwards M, et al. Addressing unmet needs in understanding asthma mechanisms: From the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership (EARIP) Work Package (WP)2 collaborators. Eur Respir J. 2017;49(5).
  9. Barlow J and McKenzie A. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in human allergic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014:14(5):397–403.
  10. Bagnasco D, et al. Anti-Interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-5Ra Biological Drugs: Efficacy, Safety, and Future Perspectives in Severe Eosinophilic Asthma. 2017;4(135).
  11. Holgate S, et al. Asthma. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015;1:15025.
  12. Doran E, et al. Interleukin-13 in Asthma and Other Eosinophilic Disorders. Front Med. 2017;4:139.
  13. Haselkorn T, Fish J, Zeiger R, et al; TENOR Study Group. Consistently very poorly controlled asthma, as defined by the impairment domain of the Expert Panel Report 3 guidelines, increases risk for future severe asthma exacerbations in The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(5):895-902.
  14. O'Byrne P, Pedersen S, Lamm C, et al; START Investigators Group. Severe exacerbations and decline in lung function in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179(1):19–24.
  15. Nguyen V and Ulrik C. Measures to reduce maintenance therapy with oral corticosteroid in adults with severe asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2016;37(6):125–139.
  16. Di Marco F, et al. Close correlation between anxiety, depression, and asthma control. Respir Med. 2010;104(1):22–28.
  17. Sullivan P, et al. Oral corticosteroid exposure and adverse effects in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(1):110–116.
  18. Boulet L. Influence of comorbid conditions on asthma. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(4):897–906.